[14][15][16] Some other early references to Kashmir can also be found in Mahabharata in Sabha Parva and in puranas like Matsya Purana, Vayu Purana, Padma Purana and Vishnu Purana and Vishnudharmottara Purana. Although some boundary agreements were signed between Great Britain, Afghanistan and Russia over the northern borders of Kashmir, China never accepted these agreements, and China's official position has not changed following the communist revolution of 1949 that established the People's Republic of China. Norelli-Bachelet, Patrizia. [28], According to tradition, Adi Shankara visited the pre-existing Sarvajñapīṭha (Sharada Peeth) in Kashmir in the late 8th century or early 9th century CE. Kashmir. The southern door of Sarvajna Pitha was opened by Adi Shankara. Karkoṭa Empire (625–885 CE) was a powerful Hindu empire, which originated in the region of Kashmir. Srinagar is known for its silver-work, papier-mâché, wood-carving, and the weaving of silk. Hence, it was anticipated that the maharaja would accede to Pakistan when the British paramountcy ended on 14–15 August. He later became a prolific translator who helped take Buddhism to China. She was a notable ruler who is often credited for saving Srinagar city from frequent floods by getting a canal constructed, named after her "Kutte Kol". Fruit trees are common in the valley, and the cultivated orchards yield pears, apples, peaches, and cherries. Dissensions among the ruling classes and foreign invasions were the two main factors which contributed towards the establishment of Muslim rule in Kashmir.[51]. Given its temperate climate, it is suited for crops like asparagus, artichoke, seakale, broad beans, scarletrunners, beetroot, cauliflower and cabbage. [19][20] The Government of Pakistan and Pakistani sources refer to the portion of Kashmir administered by India as "Indian-occupied Kashmir" ("IOK") or "Indian-held Kashmir" (IHK);[21][22] [10] Geologists agree that the Valley was formerly a lake, and the lake drained through the gap of Baramulla (Varahamula)[11] which matches with the Hindu legends. [17], Huientsang, the Buddhist scholar and Chinese traveller, called Kashmir kia-shi-milo, while some other Chinese accounts referred to Kashmir as ki-pin (or Chipin or Jipin) and ache-pin.[15]. Two treaties were concluded. [63] However, after a famine in 1832, the Sikhs reduced the land tax to half the produce of the land and also began to offer interest-free loans to farmers;[61] Kashmir became the second highest revenue earner for the Sikh Empire. The largest Muslim group, situated in the Valley of Kashmir and estimated to number more than half the population of the entire region, lay in Indian-administered territory, with its former outlets via the Jhelum valley route blocked. miles in size, and because of the breathtaking mountains scenery, is often referred to as the "Switzerland of the East.". The region is almost uninhabited, and has no permanent settlements. The terms "Indian-administered Kashmir" and "Pakistani-administered Kashmir" are often used by neutral sources for the parts of the Kashmir region controlled by each country.[23]. India has control of about half the area of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, while Pakistan controls a third of the region, the Northern Areas and Kashmir. The economy was badly damaged by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake which, as of 8 October 2005, resulted in over 70,000 deaths in the Pakistan-controlled part of Kashmir and around 1,500 deaths in Indian-controlled Kashmir. Of these, the total Muslim population was 2,997,000 (75.97%), the Hindu population was 808,000 (20.48%), and the Sikh 55,000 (1.39%).[77]. Younghusband, Francis and Molyneux, Edward 1917. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range. [53] Persian was introduced in Kashmir by the Šāh-Miri dynasty (1349–1561) and started to flourish under Sultan Zayn-al-ʿĀbedin (1420–70). Kashmir became the northernmost region of Mughal India as well as a pleasure ground in the summertime. [61], The state of Jammu, which had been on the ascendant after the decline of the Mughal Empire, came under the sway of the Sikhs in 1770. "Although there was a clear Muslim majority in Kashmir before the 1947 partition and its economic, cultural, and geographic contiguity with the Muslim-majority area of the Punjab (in Pakistan) could be convincingly demonstrated, the political developments during and after the partition resulted in a division of the region. Pakistan was left with territory that, although basically Muslim in character, was thinly populated, relatively inaccessible, and economically underdeveloped. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLeslie2003 (. [6] Akbar added it to the Kabul Subah (encompassing modern-day northeastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan and the Kashmir Valley of India), but Shah Jahan carved it out as a separate subah (imperial top-level province) with its seat at Srinagar. [7] The Nilamata Purana describes the valley's origin from the waters, a lake called Sati-saras. [26] It was founded by Durlabhvardhana during the lifetime of Harsha. India's belated discovery of this road led to border clashes between the two countries that culminated in the Sino-Indian War of October 1962.[74]. Kashmir is an area on the northern borders of India and Pakistan and the southwestern border of China. print this map Kashmir is an area on the northern borders of India and Pakistan and the southwestern border of China. (2005). [79] Other authors have suggested a higher figure for the exodus, ranging from the entire population of over 150[80] to 190 thousand (1.5 to 190,000) of a total Pandit population of 200 thousand (200,000)[81] to a number as high as 300 thousand[82] (300,000). "Kashmir and the Convergence of Time, Space and Destiny", 2004; This page was last edited on 11 October 2020, at 14:38. "Kashmir Dispute: An International Law Perspective", National Institute of Pakistan Studies. [66] After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, in which Kashmir sided with the British, and the subsequent assumption of direct rule by Great Britain, the princely state of Kashmir came under the suzerainty of the British Crown. Shah Mir was the first ruler of the Shah Mir dynasty, which was established in 1339. The Himalayan kingdom was connected to India through a district of the Punjab, but its population was 77 per cent Muslim and it shared a boundary with Pakistan. All Civil Services Examination aspirants out there! With its administrative centre in the town of Gilgit, the Northern Areas cover an area of 72,971 square kilometres (28,174 sq mi) and have an estimated population approaching 1 million (10 lakhs). Pakistan was left with territory that, although basically Muslim in character, was thinly populated, relatively inaccessible, and economically underdeveloped. [59][62] High taxes, according to some contemporary accounts, had depopulated large tracts of the countryside, allowing only one-sixteenth of the cultivable land to be cultivated. This area has been in dispute between India and Pakistan since they gained independence from the British in 1947. During the ancient and medieval periods, Kashmir was an important centre for the development of a Hindu-Buddhist syncretism, in which Madhyamaka and Yogachara were blended with Shaivism and Advaita Vedanta. [70] For almost a century until the census, a small Hindu elite had ruled over a vast and impoverished Muslim peasantry. [30], Abhinavagupta (c. 950–1020 CE[31][32]) was one of India's greatest philosophers, mystics and aestheticians. The hangul or Kashmiri stag is the only species of European red deer found in India. Culture and political history of Kashmir, Concise Encyclopeida Of World History By Carlos Ramirez-Faria, page 412. [64] Along with his able general Zorawar Singh Kahluria, he conquered and subdued Rajouri (1821), Kishtwar (1821), Suru valley and Kargil (1835), Ladakh (1834–1840), and Baltistan (1840), thereby surrounding the Kashmir Valley. The 10 Least Densely Populated Places in the World. India controls 101,338 km2 (39,127 sq mi) of the disputed territory, Pakistan controls 85,846 km2 (33,145 sq mi), and the People's Republic of China controls the remaining 37,555 km2 (14,500 sq mi). Transport is predominantly by air or road vehicles in the region. The Buddhist Mauryan emperor Ashoka is often credited with having founded the old capital of Kashmir, Shrinagari, now ruins on the outskirts of modern Srinagar. All the three men were granted Jagirs (feudatory estates) by the King. "[76] In the same Census of 1901, in the Kashmir Valley, the total population was recorded to be 1,157,394, of which the Muslim population was 1,083,766, or 93.6% and the Hindu population 60,641. [27] Avanti Varman ascended the throne of Kashmir on 855 CE, establishing the Utpala dynasty and ending the rule of Karkoṭa dynasty. The largest Muslim group, situated in the Valley of Kashmir and estimated to number more than half the population of the entire region, lay in Indian-administered territory, with its former outlets via the Jhelum valley route blocked."[74]. The collision between the two plates created the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalaya Mountains. Kashmiris are well adept at knitting and making Pashmina shawls, silk carpets, rugs, kurtas, and pottery.

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